Utilizing DC/OS to Speed up Information Science within the Enterprise

By Russell Jurney, machine / deep studying / nlp / engineering advisor.

As a full-stack machine learning consultant that focuses on constructing and delivering new merchandise to market, I’ve typically discovered myself on the intersection of information science, information engineering and dev ops. So it has been with nice curiosity that I’ve adopted the rise of information science Platforms as a Service (PaaS). I not too long ago got down to consider totally different Platforms as a Service (PaaS) and their potential to automate information science operations. I’m exploring their capabilities and can then use a number of to automate the setup and execution of code from my forthcoming ebook Weakly Supervised Studying (O’Reilly, 2020). I’m looking for the easiest way for the ebook’s readers to work via the examples.

In my final ebook, Agile Data Science 2.0 (4.5 stars), I constructed my own platform for readers to run the code utilizing bash scripts, the AWS CLI, jq, Vagrant and EC2. Whereas this made the ebook far more worthwhile for newcomers who would in any other case have hassle working the code, it has been extraordinarily troublesome to take care of and hold working. Older software program falls off the web and the platform rots. There have been 85 issues on the venture, and whereas lots of these have been fastened by reader contributions, it has nonetheless taken up a lot of the time I’ve to commit to open supply software program. I can’t repeat this daunting course of. This time goes to be totally different.

Notice: the total submit is obtainable here, and the code for the submit is obtainable here.

It’s with this in thoughts that I flip to the primary PaaS for information science I’m evaluating, which is the newly launched DC/OS Data Science Engine. I created a full tutorial utilizing Tensorflow to stroll readers via my preliminary experiment with DC/OS and its Information Science Engine utilizing Terraform and the GUI after which confirmed how one can automate that very same course of in six traces of code. It seems that is really easier than creating the equal sources utilizing the AWS CLI, which galvanized me.

Why the DC/OS Information Science Engine?

It has turn into pretty simple to setup a Jupyter Pocket book in any given cloud surroundings like Amazon Internet Providers (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP) and Microsoft Azure for a person information scientist to work. For startups and small information science groups, this can be a good answer. Nothing stays as much as be maintained and notebooks will be saved in Github for persistence and sharing.

For big enterprises, issues are usually not so easy. At this scale, non permanent environments on transitory property throughout a number of clouds can create chaos moderately than order, as environments and modeling turn into irreproducible. Enterprises work throughout a number of clouds and on premises, have specific entry management and authentication necessities, and want to offer entry to inside sources for information, supply management, streaming and different providers.

For these organizations, the DC/OS Information Science Engine presents a unified system providing the Python ML stack, Spark, Tensorflow and different DL frameworks, together with TensorFlowOnSpark to allow distributed multi-node, multi-GPU mannequin coaching. It is a fairly compelling setup that works out of the field and might finish a lot frustration and complexity for bigger information science groups and firms.

Information Science Engine on AWS

The DC/OS Universal Installer is a terraform module that makes it simple to carry up a DC/OS cluster with GPU cases for coaching neural networks. There may be one caveat right here, that you’ve sufficient GPU cases approved through Amazon’s service limits. AWS Service Limits outline what number of AWS sources you should use in any given area. The default GPU occasion allocation is zero, and it might probably take a day or two to authorize extra. If you have to pace issues up, you may go to the AWS Support Center and request a name with an agent. They’ll often speed up issues fairly a bit.

As well a cluster utilizing Terraform, we want solely edit the next variables in paas_blog/dcos/terraform/desired_cluster_profile.tfvars:

cluster_owner = "rjurney"
dcos_superuser_password_hash = "$"
dcos_superuser_username = "rjurney"
dcos_license_key_contents = ""
dcos_license_key_file = "./license.txt"
dcos_version = "1.13.4"
dcos_variant = "open"
bootstrap_instance_type = "m5.xlarge"
gpu_agent_instance_type = "p3.2xlarge"
num_gpu_agents = "5"
ssh_public_key_file = "./my_key.pub"


and run the next instructions:

terraform init -upgrade
terraform plan -var-file desired_cluster_profile.tfvars -out plan.out
terraform apply "plan.out"


The apply command’s output will embrace the IP of the grasp node(s), which is barely open to your IP. Opening the grasp url will present a login display screen the place you should use Google, Github, Microsoft or a preconfigured password to authenticate.

When you’re via with it, to destroy a cluster run:

terraform destroy --auto-approve --var-file desired_cluster_profile.tfvars


From the DC/OS internet console, the Information Science Engine is obtainable together with many different providers like Kafka, Spark and Cassandra from the Catalog menu. We’d like solely choose the ‘data-science-engine’bundle and configure the sources to present the service: CPUs, RAM and GPUs. There are lots of different choices in case you want them, however they aren’t required.



As soon as we click on Assessment & Run and make sure, we’ll be taken to the service web page. As soon as it finishes deploying in just a few seconds, we want solely click on the arrow on the service identify and we’re taken to our JupyterLab occasion.

JupyterLab’s Github module is superior, comes preinstalled and makes loading the tutorial pocket book I created to check the system simple. Clicking on the Github icon and getting into rjurney the place it says <Edit Consumer> brings up a listing of my public repositories. Choose paas_blog after which double click on on the DCOS_Data_Science_Engine.ipynb Jupyter pocket book to open it. It makes use of information on S3, so that you shouldn’t should download any information.

The tutorial creates a Stack Overflow tagger for the 786 most frequent tags primarily based upon a convolutional neural community doc classifier mannequin referred to as Kim-CNN. The pocket book is typical for deep networks and NLP. We first confirm that GPU help works in Tensorflow and we comply with the very best apply of defining variables for all mannequin parameters to facilitate a seek for hyper parameters. Then we tokenize, pad and convert the labels to a matrix earlier than performing a take a look at/prepare cut up to allow us to independently confirm the mannequin’s efficiency as soon as it’s educated.

tokenizer = Tokenizer(

sequences = tokenizer.texts_to_sequences(paperwork)

padded_sequences = pad_sequences(


Kim-CNN makes use of 1D convolutions of various lengths with max-over-time pooling and concatenates the outcomes which enter a decrease dimensional dense layer earlier than the ultimate sigmoid activated dense layer that corresponds to the tags. The core of the mannequin is carried out beneath with a few modifications.

Supply: Convolutional Neural Networks for Sentence Classification by Yoon Kim

# Create convlutions of various sizes
convs = []
for filter_size in FILTER_SIZE:
f_conv = Conv1D(
f_shape = Reshape((MAX_LEN * EMBED_SIZE, 1))(f_conv)
f_pool = MaxPool1D(filter_size)(f_conv)

l_merge = concatenate(convs, axis=1)

l_conv = Conv1D(
l_pool = GlobalMaxPool1D()(l_conv)

l_flat = Flatten()(l_pool)
l_drp = Dropout(CONV_DROPOUT_RATIO)(l_flat)

l_dense = Dense(

out_dense = Dense(

Though the information was upsampled to steadiness the lessons, there may be nonetheless sufficient imbalance that we have to compute class weights that assist the mannequin study to foretell each frequent and rare tags. With out class weights the loss perform treats frequent and rare tags equally, leading to a mannequin unlikely to foretell rare tags.

train_weight_vec = checklist(np.max(np.sum(y_train, axis=zero)) / np.sum(y_train, axis=zero))
train_class_weights = 


The first metric we care about is categorical accuracy, as binary accuracy will fail a prediction if even considered one of 786 labels are predicted incorrectly. We make use of each a discount in studying price when the validation categorical accuracy plateaus in addition to early stopping if the mannequin plateaus for 2 epochs in a row out of the whole eight epochs we prepare.

With the intention to facilitate repeatable experimentation, we repair the ultimate metric names to be repeatable (i.e., val_precision_66 turns into val_precision after which append the metrics we monitor to pandas DataFrame logs the place we will visualize each the outcomes of the present and former runs in addition to the change in efficiency between runs when adjustments have been made.

We additionally need to know the efficiency at every epoch in order that we don’t prepare needlessly giant numbers of epochs. We use matplotlib to plot a number of metrics in addition to the take a look at/prepare loss at every epoch.


Lastly, it’s not sufficient to know theoretical efficiency. We have to see the precise output of the tagger at totally different confidence thresholds. We create a DataFrame of Stack Overflow questions, their precise tags and the tags we predict to present us a direct demonstration of the mannequin and it’s actual world efficiency.

The platform ran this tutorial completely, which I take to imply that although it’s new it’s already appropriate for actual information science workloads.

Automating DC/OS Information Science Engine Setup

That covers how you employ the platform manually, however that is about PaaS automation. So how can we pace issues up?

DC/OS’s graphical person interface and CLI collectively allow quick access to JupyterLab through the Information Science Engine for all types of customers: non-technical managers making an attempt to view a report in a pocket book and dev ops/information engineers seeking to automate a course of. If the guide GUI course of appears concerned, we will automate it in just a few traces as soon as we have now the service configuration as a JSON file by launching the DC/OS cluster through Terraform instructions, getting the cluster handle from Terraform, then utilizing the DC/OS CLI to authenticate with the cluster and run the service.

The DC/OS GUI gives instructions to stick right into a shell to put in and configure the CLI, which we use to automate cluster and repair setup.

You should utilize the GUI to setup automation by exporting the service configuration.

The service configuration itself is fairly simple:


"name": "data-science-engine",
"cpus": 8,
"mem": 51200,
"enabled": true,
"gpus": 1


Then you may set up the service with a single command:

dcos bundle set up data-science-engine --options=data-science-engine-options.json


For full blown automation utilizing the CLI alone you may create the cluster and launch the Information Science Engine with simply 6 instructions:

# Boot DC/OS Cluster
terraform init -upgrade
terraform plan -var-file desired_cluster_profile.tfvars -out plan.out
terraform apply plan.out

# Get the cluster handle from Terraform's JSON output
export CLUSTER_ADDRESS = `terraform output -json | jq -r '.["masters-ips"].worth[0]'`

# Authenticate CLI to Cluster utilizing its handle and Set up the Information Science Engine Bundle
dcos cluster setup http://$CLUSTER_ADDRESS # add no matter arguments you want for automated authentication
dcos bundle set up data-science-engine --options=data-science-engine-options.json


Six instructions to setup a DC/OS cluster with dozens of obtainable providers a click on away together with a JupyterLab occasion that may run Spark jobs and might carry out distributed Tensorflow coaching. That’s not unhealthy!


All in all I used to be impressed with the DC/OS Information Science Engine. The setup was pretty simple manually, the surroundings was appropriate for actual use and automation proved simple. I’ll positively contemplate this platform as an possibility for working the examples in my ebook. If you happen to’d prefer to study extra, take a look at the total submit here, and the code for the submit is obtainable right here: github.com/rjurney/paas_blog.


Bio: Russell Jurney runs Information Syndrome constructing machine studying and visualization merchandise from idea to deployment, main era methods, and doing information engineering.


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