Francois Chollet on the Way forward for Keras and Reinforce Convention

Forward of Reinforce Convention in Budapest, we requested Francois Chollet, the creator of Keras, about Keras future, proposed developments, PyTorch, vitality effectivity, and extra. Hearken to him in particular person in Budapest, April 6-7, and use code KDNuggets to save lots of 15% on convention tickets.

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Francois Chollet, the creator of Keras, will probably be talking on the Reinforce AI conference in Budapest, on April 6-7, about Keras’ evolution and Tensorflow integration. Forward of the convention, we requested Chollet a number of questions concerning the future and the instructions of Keras. Learn his solutions beneath.

Reinforce AI conference, Budapest,  April 6-7
Use coupon code KDNuggets to get 15% off conference tickets.

What are crucial options you propose so as to add to Keras in 2020?

Francois Chollet: Keras in 2020 is constant its evolution as an end-to-end framework for deep studying purposes. Listed here are among the large new options we have launched just lately or are about to launch:

Preprocessing layers and redesigned picture preprocessing API:
traditionally we have delegated preprocessing to auxiliary instruments written in NumPy and PIL (the Python Imaging Library). Nevertheless, this sort of exterior preprocessing makes fashions much less moveable: each time somebody reuses a mannequin you’ve got skilled, they should additionally recreate the preprocessing pipeline. And that pipeline has to behave in the very same approach as the unique one — or the mannequin will break. This turns into a major difficulty if you need to port your mannequin to JavaScript, for example, which is in any other case simple to do for Keras fashions. So, the brand new method we’re taking is to make preprocessing a part of the mannequin, through “preprocessing layers”. This covers issues like textual content standardization, tokenization, vectorization, picture normalization and random information augmentation. It permits fashions to just accept uncooked textual content or uncooked photographs as enter.

Keras Tuner: this can be a next-generation hyperparameter tuning framework constructed for Keras. We have seen loads of pleasure round this software already, and really sturdy adoption at Google. It solves the large ache level of hyperparameter tuning for ML practitioners and researchers, with a easy and really Kerasic workflow.

AutoKeras: this venture brings Automated Machine Studying (AutoML) to the true world, with a brilliant usable, Keras-like API. It is constructed on prime of Keras and Keras Tuner. You need to use it to outline and prepare a ML mannequin in simply 3 traces of code — and because of automated search throughout the house of doable fashions, that preliminary 3-line mannequin will already be fairly performant. For extra superior customers, AutoKeras additionally offers you a deep degree of management over how the configuration of the search house and the search course of.

Cloud Keras: that is nonetheless on the prototype stage, and can quickly go into beta. The imaginative and prescient is to allow you to take any Keras script that may run regionally in your laptop computer or in a Colab pocket book, and in a single line of code, launch a distributed coaching job within the cloud. You may get basically the identical workflow as growing regionally — no want to fret about cluster configuration and Docker containers — however your experiments will run terribly quick.

Better integration with TFX (TensorFlow Prolonged, a platform for managing manufacturing ML apps), and higher assist for exporting fashions to TF Lite (a ML execution engine for cell and embedded units). We expect nice assist for manufacturing use instances is essential to the success of Keras.

How do you see Keras evolution vs PyTorch ?

Francois Chollet: I believe evaluating TensorFlow/Keras and PyTorch is actually evaluating apples to oranges. PyTorch is a Python library for outlining and coaching deep studying fashions. Which is probably 10% of a typical ML workflow. However we’re extra of a ML platform that helps end-to-end use instances for the true world. Dataset administration, scaling coaching to 27,000 GPUs, arbitrarily scalable hyperparameter tuning, deploying a manufacturing mannequin to an API, within the browser, on cell, or on an embedded machine — you identify it, we are able to do it. TensorFlow/Keras is highly effective. And now we have 3x to 5x extra customers than PyTorch, which displays this distinction.

Contemplating that coaching massive Deep Studying fashions can devour loads of vitality and probably contribute to international warming, what about Keras or TensorFlow assist for energy-efficient computation?

Francois Chollet: Coaching deep studying fashions is computationally intensive, particularly if you happen to’re doing hyperparameter tuning or structure search. Now, whether or not this contributes to CO2 emissions is solely a matter of the supply of the electrical energy used. Should you construct your datacenter in a spot the place there’s considerable and low-cost hydroelectric energy, your deep studying fashions might be carbon-free. Within the case of Google — an enormous shopper of deep studying mannequin coaching — the corporate truly releases stories concerning the carbon-intensiveness of its operations, if you happen to’re keen on that. Google already purchases an quantity of renewable energy that matches 100% of its consumption, and has made a dedication to run solely on renewable energy within the close to future.

As for Keras particularly — there are a number of methods you may scale back your vitality footprint. The primary one, after all, is to coach smaller fashions and to be extra centered in your use of hyperparameter search and structure search. I actually suppose that Keras Tuner and AutoKeras may help with that, by democratizing extra clever search methodologies, versus merely brute-forcing a big search house.

For a given coaching run, one factor you are able to do is use combined precision. We’ve got an easy-to-use (at present experimental) API in Keras for combined precision throughout coaching. This could scale back the compute-intensiveness of your mannequin by round 30% on common.

For manufacturing fashions that solely do inference, now we have a collection of instruments that can assist you optimize them and make them as light-weight as doable: the TensorFlow mannequin optimization toolkit. It makes it simple to do weight pruning and weight quantization. That is particularly if you need your mannequin to run on cell with out coaching the battery, or on low-power embedded units comparable to microcontrollers. However even within the case of a mannequin working on an everyday server, a well-optimized mannequin can considerably scale back your energy consumption and operations prices.


Francois Chollet will probably be talking on the Reinforce AI conference in Budapest, on April 6-7, about Keras’ evolution and Tensorflow integration. Csaba Szepesvari from DeepMind may also converse subsequent to David Aronchick from Microsoft who beforehand additionally labored for Google and co-founded Kubeflow, and Reza Zadeh from Stanford, a member of the Technical Advisory Board for Databricks. In his speak, Reza explains the right way to flip ML analysis into real-world merchandise.

Use code KDNuggets to get 15% off convention tickets.

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